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Ca 125 (cancer antigen 125) - CA 125 is a protein made by certain cells in the body which include those of the uterus, uterine tubes, cervix, abdomen, and chest ( pleura and lungs ). Elevated CA 125 can be caused by many conditions such as peritonitis, pleuritis, menstruation, pregnancy, endometriosis, liver disease, benign ovarian growths, and by cancers of the uterine tubes, endometrium, lung, breast, and gastrointestinal tract.

Cachexia - A profound and marked state of constitutional disorder, general ill health and malnutrition.

- Latin = blind.

- Latin calx = heel, hence the bone of the heel.

- Latin = a spur.

Calcar avis
- Latin the spur of a bird, hence a spur-like elevation.

- Latin calcar = spur, hence spur-shaped.

- A silver-white bivalent metallic element of the alkaline-earth group occurring only in combination.

- the soft tissue swelling at the back of the leg.

- Latin = a wine-cup (plural - calices).

- Latin callum = hard.

- Latin calva = bald head, hence the part of the skull containing the brain - i.e. cranium minus the facial skeleton.

- Latin = a wine-cup (plural - calyces).

- Latin canalis = a water-pipe or canal.

- diminutive of canal.

- adjective, Latin cancelli = grating or lattice.

Cancer - Cancer is a group of more than 100 different diseases. Benign tumours are not cancer; malignant tumours are cancer. Most cancers are named for the type of cell or the organ in which they begin. When cancer spreads (metastasizes), the new tumour has the same name as the original (primary) tumour

Cancer control - Cancer Control is the conduct of research and the translation of knowledge from research into strategies and actions to prevent cancer and to increase survival and quality of life for those touched by cancer. A simplified definition of "cancer control" is: Any activity that reduces the morbidity (sickness, disease) or mortality (death) from cancer.

Cancer prevention - Cancer prevention research involves the development and evaluation of strategies for reducing cancer incidence. Such strategies could be aimed at preventing the initiation of the neoplastic process or at avoiding the progression to malignancy of already initiated cells. These efforts, which may be multidisciplinary and multifactorial, can involve a broad range of studies at the molecular, cellular, organismal and population levels.

Canine - adjective, Latin canis = dog.

Canthus - Greek kanthos - used at first for rim of eye, then angle between ends of rims.

Capillaries - microscopic blood vessels with extremely thin walls.

Capillary - Latin capillaris = hair-like, hence a very thin blood vessel.

Capitate - adjective, having a caput from Latin capitis = of a head (q.v.).

Capitis - (L. caput, head). Pertaining to the head.

Capitulum - diminutive of caput, Latin = head.

Capsularis - (L. capsa, a chest or box). A muscle joined to a capsule as, for example, a joint. Any structure so designated as a capsule.

Capsule - Latin capsa = box, hence an enclosing sheet.

Caput - Latin = head. Capitis - of a head, adjective - capitate = having a head (cf. decapitate).

Caput medusae - Latin caput = head, Medusa = Greek mythical female with snake like hair.

Carbohydrate - any of certain organic compounds, including the sugars, starches, and celluloses.

Carbohydrate - Any of various neutral compounds of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen (as sugars, starches, and celluloses) most of which are formed by green plants and which constitute a major class of animal foods.

Carcinogenesis - Process that leads to formation of cancer from normal cells or tissues.

Carcinogens - Carcinogens are agents that can cause cancer.

Carcinoid tumor - A small tumor (benign or malignant) arising from the mucosa of the gastrointestinal tract; usually associated with excessive secretion of serotonin.

Carcinoma - Carcinoma is a cancer found in body tissues that cover or line surfaces of organs, glands, or body structures.

Cardiac - adjective, Greek kardia = heart.

Cardiac cycle - describes all the activities of the heart through one complete heartbeat - that is, through one contraction and relaxation of both the atria and the ventricles.

Cardiac output (CO) - is the volume of blood pumped out of the right or left ventricle per minute. CO = SV X HR.

Cardinal - Latin cardinalis = principal, of primary importance.

Cardiovascular system - consists of the heart, blood vessels, and blood. This system transports nutrients, oxygen, and hormones to cells and removes metabolic waste. It protects the body and regulates body temperature.

Carina - Latin = a keel.

Carneae - Latin carnea = fleshy.

Carnosus - (L. carnis, flesh or muscle). Pertaining to muscular tissue or dermal muscles.

Carotid - Greek karoo, to put to sleep (heavy sleep), because compression of the common or internal carotid artery may cause coma.

Carpi - (G. karpos, wrist). Muscles relating to the eight carpal bones of the wrist.

Carpus - Greek = wrist, adjective - carpal.

Cartilage - Latin = gristle; adjective - cartilaginous.

Caruncle - diminutive of Latin caro = flesh, hence, a small fleshy elevation.

Casefinding - Casefinding is a system for locating every patient -- inpatient or outpatient, public or private -- who is diagnosed and/or treated with a reportable malignancy.

Casefinding cycle
- Identifying source documents; determine reporting methods (active, passive, or a combination);linking the identified cases Monitoring completeness of casefinding

- accelerates the rate of a reaction.

Catecholamine - Any of various amines (as epinephrine, norepinephrine, and dopamine) that function as hormones or neurotransmitters or both.

Cauda - Latin = tail, adjective - caudate - having a tail.

Cauda equina - Latin = a horse's tail.

Caudal - Latin cauda = tail, hence toward the tail, inferior (in human anatomy).

Caudate - Latin cauda = tail, hence having a tail.

- (L. cauda, tail) The belly of a muscle. When the bellies are divided, bicaudatus.

Cautery - The application of a caustic substance, a hot instrument, an electric current, or other agent to destroy tissue.

Cava - Latin cavum = cave, hollow.

Cavernosus - (L. caverna, a grotto or hollow). Pertaining to the cavernous tissue of the reproductive system.

Cavernous - Latin containing caverns or cave-like spaces.

Cavity - Latin cavitas = a hollow.

Cavum - Latin = cave.

Cea (carcino-embryonic antigen) - CEA is a protein produced in the fetus but not in normal adult life. Produced by some carcinomas, particularly of the colon, it is an insensitive marker of malignancy. CEA is an oncofetal antigen that is used as a tumor marker.

Cecum - Latin = blind.

Celiac - adjective, Greek koilia = belly.

Celiac disease - A disorder in children and adults; inability to tolerate wheat protein (gluten); symptoms include foul-smelling diarrhea and emaciation; often accompanied by lactose intolerance.

Celom - Greek koilos = a hollow

Central - adjective, Latin centrum = centre.

Central nervous system (cns) -- consists of the brain and the spinal cord.

Centriole - A cylinder-shaped organelle composed of microtubules and found in the nucleus of a cell. During nuclear division it forms the spindle, which ensures that the duplicated chromosomes are equally divided between the daughter cells.

Centrum - Latin = centre.

Cephalic - adjective, Greek kephale = head.

Cerato - (G. keras, horn). Relating to muscle that arises from the greater horn of the hyoid bone.

Cerebellum - diminutive of Latin cerebrum = brain.

Cerebrum - Latin = brain, adjective - cerebral. Consists of two cerebral hemispheres connected by a bundle of nerve fibers.

Cerumen - Latin cera = wax.

Cervical - adjective, Latin cervix = neck, hence, pertaining to the neck.

Cervix - Latin = neck, adjective - cervical.

Channel proteins - provide passageways through the plasma membrane for certain water-soluble substances such as polar and charged molecules.

Chediak-higashi syndrome - A generalized cellular disorder which affects all granule-containing cells resulting in recurrent infections and ocular, neurological, and skin manifestations.

Chemotherapy - Chemotherapy is the treatment of cancer with drugs that can destroy cancer cells. These drugs often are called "anticancer" drugs. Anticancer drugs destroy cancer cells by stopping them from growing or multiplying. Healthy cells can also be harmed, especially those that divide quickly. Harm to healthy cells is what causes side effects. These cells usually repair themselves after chemotherapy.

Chiasma - Greek kiasma = cross. (The Greek letter chi = c).

Choana - Greek = funnel, plural - choanae.

Cholangiocarcinoma - Cholangiocarcinoma is a malignant (cancerous) growth in one of the ducts that carries bile from the liver to the small intestine.

Cholecystokinin - A hormone secreted especially by the duodenal mucosa that regulates the emptying of the gallbladder and secretion of enzymes by the pancreas and that has been found in the brain.

Chondral - adjective, Greek chondros = cartilage.

Chondro - (G. chondros, cartilage). Pertaining to muscles that arise from costal cartilage.

Chorda - Latin = cord.

Choriocarcinoma -- The choriocarcinoma is a non-seminomatous testicular germ cell tumor characterized by the presence of large cells which express human chorionic gonadotropin. This tumor metastasizes hematogenously early in its development.

Chorion (adj. chorionic) - The highly vascular outer embryonic membrane of reptiles, birds, and mammals that in placental mammals is associated with the allantois in the formation of the placenta.

- adjective, Greek chorion = skin and eidos = shape or form, hence, like a membrane.

Chromatin - A complex of nucleic acid and basic proteins (as histone) in eukaryotic cells that is usually dispersed in the interphase nucleus and condensed into chromosomes in mitosis and meiosis.

Chromosome - One of the linear or sometimes circular DNA-containing bodies of viruses, prokaryotic organisms, and the cell nucleus of eukaryotic organisms that contain most or all of the genes of the individual. Made up of two identical halves called sister chromatids, which are joined at the centromere. Each consists of a single, tightly coiled molecule of DNA.

Chronic myelogenous leukemia (cml) - Chronic myelogenous leukemia (CML) is a malignant cancer of the bone marrow that causes rapid growth of the blood forming cells (known as myeloid precursors) in the bone marrow, peripheral blood, and body tissues.

Chyle - Greek = juice.

Chyli - Greek = juice.

Chyme - The semifluid mass of partly digested food expelled by the stomach into the duodenum.

Cilia - structure that protrudes from the cell membrane and makes wavelike movements. Classified by length and number per cell, cilia are short and many. The numerous cilia that line the respiratory tract sweep away debris. Structurally cilia consists of microtubules arranged in a "9 + 2" array.

Ciliary - adjective, Latin cilia = eyelashes.

Cilii - (L. cilium, eyelid). Pertaining to the eyebrow, e.g., corrigator supercilii.

Cilium - Latin = eyelid, hence, an eyelash; adjective - ciliary, or ciliated.

Cilium (pl. cilia) - A minute, short hairlike process often forming part of a fringe; especially : one on a cell that is capable of lashing movement and serves especially in free unicellular organisms to produce locomotion or in higher forms a current of fluid.

Cinereum - Latin cineris = of ashes.

Cingulum - Latin girdle or belt, adjective - cingulate.

- verb and adjective, Latin circum = around, and flexere = to bend, hence, bend or bent around.

Cirrohsis - A chronic disease interfering with the normal functioning of the liver; the major cause is chronic alcoholism.

Cisterna - Latin = a cistern.

Classification scheme - A logical system for the arrangement of knowledge. A fully developed classification scheme specifies categories of knowledge and provides the means to relate the categories to each other and to specify in the classification number all or the most important of the aspects and facets of a subject.

Claustrum - Latin clausum = closed, hence a barrier.

Clavicle - diminutive of Latin clavis = key - old Roman key was S-shaped.

Clavicularis - (L. clavicula, small key). Pertaining to muscles associated with the clavicle.

Cleido - (G. kleis, clavicle). Related with the clavicle. Greek, cleis = key, a combining form denoting relationship to the clavicle.

Clinoid - adjective, Greek kline = bed, eidos = shape or form, hence, like a bed-post.

Clivus - Latin = slope (cf. declivity).

Cloaca - Latin = a drain, sewer; common opening for intestinal, urinary and genital tracts in lower vertebrates, it is a transitory structure in human embryological development.

Coccygeus - (G. kokkyx, a cuckoo). A muscle associated with the coccyx, e.g., musculus coccygeus.

Coccyx - Greek kokkyx = cuckoo, whose bill the coccyx resembles.

Cochlea - Latin = snail, hence the spiral cochlea, adjective - cochlear.

Coeliac - adjective, Greek koilia = belly.

Coeruleus - adjective, Latin = blue, hence, locus coeruleus, a group of nerve cells in the rostral pons coloured blue or black by melanin.

Cofactors - nonprotein molecules that assist enzymes.

Coli - Latin = of the colon.

Collateral - adjective, Latin con = together, and latus = side, hence, alongside.

Colli - genetive (possessive case) of collum, Latin = neck. (L. collum, neck). Pertaining to the neck or to the neck of a structure, e.g., longus colli muscle.

Colliculus - diminutive of Latin collis = hill.

Collum - Latin = neck (cf. collar).

Colon - Greek kolon = large intestine.

Colposcope - A magnifying and photographic device used as an aid in the diagnostic examination of the vaginal and cervical epithelia.

Columna - Latin = column, or pillar.

Comitans - adjective, Latin = accompanying.

Commissure - Latin con = together, and missum = sent, hence fibres which cross between symmetrical parts.

Communicans - adjective, Latin = communicating.

Communis - (L. communis, in common). Relating to more than one structure working as one unit, e.g., extensor digitorum communis.

Compact Bone - the hard material that makes up the shaft of long bones and the outside surfaces of other bones.

Compound - when the atoms in a molecule are different. For example, H2O and C6H12O6, but not O2.

Compressor - (L. compressus, to press together). A muscle that, when contracted, produces pressure on another structure.

Concha - Latin = shell.

Condyle - Greek kondylos = knuckle

Condyloideus - (G. kondylos, knuckle). Pertaining to a muscle attached to the outer edge of a joint or a bony knob-like stucture.

Cones - photoreceptor cells that respond to bright light and color and transmit sharp images.

Confidential - Spoken or written in secret and intended to be kept secret. In the cancer registry, all identifiable data is considered to be confidential.

Confluens - Latin con = together, and fluens = flowing, hence the meeting of more than one stream.

Conization - Surgery to remove a cone-shaped piece of tissue from the cervix and cervical canal. Conization may be used to diagnose or treat a cervical condition. Also called cone biopsy.

Conjunctiva - Latin con = with, and junctus = joined (cf. junction), hence the continuous bulbar and palpebral lining membrane.

Connective tissue - The supporting or framework tissue of the body, formed of fibrous and ground substance with more or less numerous cells of various kinds; it is derived from the mesenchyme, and this in turn from the mesoderm; the varieties of connective tissue are: areolar or loose; adipose; dense, regular or irregular, white fibrous; elastic; mucous; and lymphoid tissue; cartilage; and bone; the blood and lymph may be regarded as connective tissues the ground substance of which is a liquid.

Conoid - Greek konoeides = resembling a cone, cone shape

Constrictor - Latin con = together, and strictum = drawn tight, hence, producing narrowing. (L. constringere). A muscle that, upon contraction, reduces the size of a canal, a sphincter.

Contour - Greek tornos = lathe, hence a line which turns - an outline.

Contralateral - Latin contra = against, latus = side, hence, the opposite side (as opposed to ipsilateral)

Conus - Latin = cone, conus medullaris - the lower end of the spinal cord.

Coraco - (G. korakoides, a crow's beak). Denoting a muscle that arises from the coracoid process of the scapula.

Coracoid - adjective, Greek korax = a crow, and eidos = shape or form, hence, like a crow's beak.

Core biopsy - Similar to needle biopsy, but a larger needle is used because actual tissue is removed, rather than a tiny sampling of cells. A sample of the tumoris removed, but not the whole tumor. The types of core biopsies include ultrasound-guided core biopsy and stereotactic biopsy.

Cornea - Latin cornu = horn, hence, the dense tissue forming the front of the eyeball.

Corniculate - Latin = shaped like a small horn.

Cornu - Latin = horn. (L. cornu, horn). Any structure resembling a horn in shape.

Corona - Latin = crown. adjective - coronary or coronal; hence a coronal plane is parallel to the main arch of a crown which passes from ear to ear (cf. coronal suture).

Coronal - Latin corona = crown; hence a coronal plane is parallel to the main arch of a crown which passes from ear to ear (cf. coronal suture)

Coronary - adjective, Latin = crown, hence, encircling like a crown.

Coronary circulation - the blood vessels that supply oxygen and nutrients to the tissues of the heart.

Coronoid - adjective, Greek korone = a crown, eidos = shape or form, hence, shaped like a crown.

Corpus - Latin = body, plural - corpora.

Corpus callosum - The great band of commissural fibers uniting the cerebral hemispheres of higher mammals including humans.

Corpus luteum - The zona granulosa and theca cells remaining in the ovary after ovulation and some surrounding capillaries and connective tissue evolve into the corpus luteum.

Corpuscle - Latin = a little body.

Corrugator - Latin con = together, and ruga = wrinkle, hence a muscle that produces wrinkles. (L. con, together + ruga, wrinkel). A muscle that wrinkels the skin.

Cortex - Latin = bark, adjective, cortical.

Costa - Latin = rib. adjective - costal.

Costalis - (L. costa, rib). Pertaining to muscles attached to ribs.

Covalent bond - a chemical bond that forms when electrons are shared between atoms.

- Latin = hip, hence os coxae = the hip bone.

Cranial nerves - nerves of the peripheral nervous system that originate from or terminate in the brain.

Cranium - Greek kranion = skull. (In anthropology = skull minus mandible) adjective - cranial. The bones of the skull which contain the brain, the brain case.

Cremaster - Greek = suspender, hence the muscle which suspends the testis. (G. kremaster, a suspender). Musculus cremaster, the muscle by which the testicles are suspended.

Cribriform - adjective, Latin cribrum = sieve, hence, sieve-like.

Crico - (G. kikos, a ring). Denoting muscles that attach to the cricoid cartilage.

Cricoid - adjective, Greek krikos = ring, and eidos = shape or form, hence, ring-like, i.e. circular.

Crista - crest, crista galli = the (median) crest of a cock.

Crohn disease - Crohn disease is an inflammatory bowel disease (IBD); it is the general name for diseases that cause inflammation in the intestines. Crohn disease causes inflammation in the small intestine. Crohn's disease usually occurs in the lower part of the small intestine, called the ileum, but it can affect any part of the digestive tract, from the mouth to the anus.

Cruciate - adjective, Latin crux = cross, hence, crossed like the letter X.

Crural - (L. crus, leg). Pertaining to the leg (from knee to ankle) or to any other muscle designated as a crus.

Crus - Latin = leg, plural - crura.

Cryosurgery - A surgical technique that utilises freezing tissue to remove unwanted portions.

Cryptorchidism - A condition in which one or both testicles fail to move from the abdomen, where they develop before birth, into the scrotum. Cryptorchidism may increase the risk for development of testicular cancer. Also called undescended testicles.

CT - A standard medical abbreviation for C omputerized T omography.

Cubital - adjective, Latin cubitus = elbow.

Cuboid - adjective, Greek kuboides = cube-shaped.

Culdoscopy - The introduction of a viewing tube through the end of the vagina into the cul-de-sac. The cul-de-sac is also called the rectouterine pouch, an extension of the peritoneal cavity between the rectum and back wall of the uterus.

Culmen - Latin = summit (cf. culminate).

Cuneate - adjective, Latin = a wedge.

Cuneiform - adjective, Latin cuneus = wedge, hence wedge-shaped.

Cuneus - Latin = a wedge, adjective - cuneate.

Cupola - Latin = little dome.

Cupula - Latin = little dome.

Cusp - Latin cuspis = a pointed elevation.

Cutaneous - adjective, Latin cutis = skin. Pertaining to the skin, dermal, dermic.

Cxr - A standard medical abbreviation for C hest X - R ay.

Cyst - Greek kystis = bladder, adjective - cystic.

Cystic - Relating to a cyst -- any closed cavity or sac that is lined by epithelium often contains liquid or semi-solid material.

Cytogenetics - The study of chromosomes, the visible carriers of DNA, the hereditary material. Cytogenetics is a fusion science due to joining of cytology (the study of cells) with genetics (the study of inherited variation).

Cytokinesis - divides the cytoplasm in the cell.

Cytology - the study of cells at the microscopic level. Cytology is the study of cells and how they function.

Cytoplasm - specialized bodies within a cell called organelles suspended in a fluid matrix, the cytosol. The protoplasm of a cell exclusive of that of the nucleus, it consists of a continuous aqueous solution and the organelles and inclusions suspended in it and is the site of most of the chemical activities of the cell.

Cytoskeleton - the internal structure of the cytoplasm.

Cytosol - a fluid matrix of water and dissolved substances such as proteins and nutrients.

Cytotoxic - Any substance which has the properties to harm or destroy cells.