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sac - Latin saccus = a sack.

saccule - Latin sacculus, diminutive of saccus.

sacrum - Latin sacer = sacred (probably considered so because of its size).

sagittal - adjective, Latin sagitta = arrow, because the sagittal suture is notched posteriorly, like an arrow, by the lambdoid sutures.

sagittal planes - divide the body or organ vertically into a right and left part.

salivary - adjective, Latin saliva = spit.

Salpingo- - (G. salpinx, trumpet). Pertaining to a muscle fascicle attached to the eustachian (auditory) tube and pharynx.

salpinx - Greek = trumpet; hence, the uterine or auditory tube, each of which is trumpet-shaped.

Saphenous - (G. saphenes, visible) Pertaining to a muscle that is associated with the saphenous vein. Adjective, Greek saphenes = obviously visible. The saphenous veins become very apparent when varicose.

Sarcoma - A malignant neoplasm arising in tissue of mesodermal origin (as connective tissue, bone, cartilage, or striated muscle)

Sartorius - (L. sartor, a tailor). Musculus sartorius. Latin = tailor; hence, sartorius muscles, which produce the posture in which tailors once worked, squatting on the floor.

scala - Latin = stairs; hence the parallel spiral passages which wind up to, or down from, the cupula of the bony cochlea.

scalene - adjective, Greek skalenos = uneven, hence a triangle with unequal sides, an apt description of the shape of scalenus anterior and scalenus medius muscles.

Scalenus - (G. skalenos, uneven). Pertaining to muscles having uneven sides or length. adjective, Greek skalenos = uneven, hence a triangle with unequal sides, an apt description of the shape of scalenus anterior and scalenus medius muscles.

scaphoid - adjective, Greek skaphe = skiff, and eidos = shape or form; hence the carpal which is hollowed out on its distal surface for the head of the capitate; also the fossa occupied by tensor veli palatini muscle.

scapula - Greek skapto = I dig, because of the resemblance to a spade.

Scapulo- - (L. scapulae, shoulder blades). Pertaining to a muscle associated with the scapula.

sciatic - adjective, Greek ischion = hip-joint. Ischiadikos meant pertaining to the ischium or hip - later changed to sciatic. (The ischium earns its name because it forms > 2/5 of the acetabulum, whereas the ilium contributes < 2/5, and the pubis only 1/5). The

sclera - Greek skleros = hard; hence the tough, outer layer of the eyeball; adjective - scleral.

Sclerosis - A hardening within the nervous system, especially of the brain and spinal cord, resulting from degeneration of nervous elements such as the myelin sheath.

sclerotome - Greek skleros = hard, and tome = a cutting.

scoliosis - Greek skolios = crooked or curve, and -osis = condition, hence, the lateral curvature of the spine.

scrotum - possibly derived from Latin scorteus = leather; adjective - scrotal.

Sebaceous - Of, relating to, or being fatty material.

secrete - Latin secretus = separated; hence, to produce a chemical substance by glandular activity - adjective, secretory; noun, secretion.

sella - Latin = saddle; adjective - sellar, sella turcica = Turkish saddle.

semen - Latin = seed; adjective - seminal (seminal vesicle).

Semi- - (L. semis, half). Prefix denoting half or partly.

semilunaris - adjective, Latin semi = half, and luna = moon; hence, having a half-moon shape.

semimembranosus - adjective, Latin semi = half, and membrana = membrane; hence, the hamstring muscle of which the upper half is membranous.

seminiferous - Latin semen = seed and ferre = to carry, to bear; hence, the sperm-producing tubules in the testes.

semitendinosus - adjective, Latin semi = half, and tendo = I stretch; hence, the hamstring muscle of which the lower half is tendinous.

sensory neurons - transmit impulses from skin and other sensory organ or from various places within the body to the central nervous system.

septum - Latin saeptum = fenced in; hence, a dividing fence or partition.

serous - Latin = like serum.

Serratus - (L. serra, saw). Pertaining to muscles that are serrated, notched, or dentate.

serratus - adjective, Latin = notched like the edge of a saw (serrate).

Serum - The clear liquid that separates from the blood when it is allowed to clot. This fluid retains any antibodies that were present in the whole blood.

sesamoid - adjective, Greek sesamodes, eidos = shape or form; like grains of sesame, hence, small bone in tendon at site of friction.

Sezary Disease - This is a variant of a cutaneous T-cell lymphoma. It likely represents the leukemic phase of mycosis fungoides.

Shared Follow-up - Shared follow-up is the act or process of sharing information or contacting the patient at least once per year to ascertain vial status, cancer status, and other information.

sialogram - Greek sialon = saliva, and gramma = a diagram; hence, a radiograph of a salivary duct.

Sideroblast - An erythroblast having granules of ferritin

sigmoid - adjective, Greek sigma, the form used at the end of a word having an S-shape; hence, S-shaped.

Signet Ring - The early stage of trophozoite development of the malaria parasite in the red blood cell; the parasite cytoplasm stains blue around its circular margin, and the nucleus stains red in Romanowsky stains, while the central vacuole is clear, giving the ringlike appearance.

sinister - adjective, Latin = left-sided.

Sinoatrial Node - The sinoatrial (SA) node is a section of nodal tissue that is located in the upper wall of the right atrium. The SA node is also referred to as the pacemaker of the heart.

sinus - Latin = a hollow or space which may contain air, venous or arterial blood, lymph or serous fluid; adjective, sinusoid.

Sister Mary Joseph node (Sister Joseph node) - A malignant intra-abdominal neoplasm metastatic to the umbilicus.

skeletal muscle - attaches to bones and causes movements of the body; also known as striated muscle or voluntary muscle.

skeletal system - bones, cartilage, and the membranes that line the bones.

smooth muscle - lines the walls of hollow organs.

sole - the lower surface of the foot - see soleus.

Soleus - (L. solea, a sandal [foot]). Musculus soleus.

soleus - adjective, Latin solea = flatfish or sandal; hence soleus muscle which does not enter the sole of the foot, but resembles the fish.

solitarius - Latin = solitary, alone.

soma - Greek = the body.

somatic - adjective, Greek soma = the body; hence, pertaining to the body frame but not to its viscera.

somatic nervous system (SNS) - directs the contraction of skeletal muscles.

somite - Greek soma = body, hence an embryonic body segment.

spasm - Greek spasmos = an involuntary contraction of a muscle; adjective - spastic, or spasmodic.

sperma - Greek = seed or semen, adjective, spermatic.

spermatogenesis - the development of a spermatid into mature sperm cells.

sphenoid - adjective, Greek sphen = wedge, and eidos = shape or form; hence the unpaired bone which is wedged into the base of the skull between the unpaired frontal and occipital.

Sphincter - A ringlike band of muscle fibres that constricts a passage or closes a natural orifice, also called musculus sphincter.

sphincter - Greek sphinkter = a tight binder; hence, a circular muscle which closes an orifice; adjective - sphincteric.

spinal cord - an extension of the brain stem that functions to transmit nerve impulses and spinal reflexes.

spine - Latin spina = a thorn; hence, a sharp process, or a lay term for the vertebral column; adjective, spinous, spinal.

Spinous - (L. spina, thorn). Related to the spinous processes of the vertebral column.

splanchnic - adjective, Greek splanchnon = a viscus or internal organ; hence pertaining to viscera.

spleen - the largest lymphatic organ and is located on the left side of the body between the diaphragm and stomach. It filters the blood, destroys old red blood cells, provides a reservoir of blood, is active in immune responses, and produces blood cells.

spleen - Latin splen = the spleen; hence; adjective - splenic (Latin - lien).

splenium - Greek splenion = a bandage. The splenium of corpus callosum resembles a partly rolled bandage.

Splenius - (G. splenion, a bandage). Musculus splenius and others.

splenius - Greek splenion = a bandage. Hence, splenius capitis muscle, with its finely-woven fibres and its quarter-spiral twist from a coronal to a sagittal plane.

Splenomegaly - Enlargement of the spleen.

spongiosum - adjective, Greek spongia = a sponge.

spongy bone - consists of thin, irregularly shaped plates arranged in a latticelike network.

squama - Latin = a scale (as of fish or reptile); adjective - squamous.

squamous - adjective, Latin squama = a scale (as of fish or reptile), hence scale-like.

Squamous cell carcinoma - A malignant neoplasm of squamous cells. In the white population, squamous cell carcinoma of the skin is associated with prolonged exposure to ultraviolet light and these neoplasms are slow to metastasis even after becoming invasive.

Staging - A term used to define the size and physical extent of a cancer; staging is the process of assigning a stage to a particular cancer in a specific patient in light of all the available information.

Stapedius - (L. stapes, stirrup). A muscle inserted into the stapes. Musculus stapedius.

stapes - Latin = stirrup; adjective - stapedial, stapedius.

stellate - adjective, Latin stella = star.

Stem Cell - "Master Cells" that generate other differentiated cell types. Each tissue within the body contains a unique type of stem cells that renew and replace that tissue (e.g. nerve, brain, cartilage, blood) when needed due to damage or wear and tear. Stem cells of the blood (hematopoietic stem cells) generate all other blood cells in the human body, including red blood cells, platelets, and white blood cells. Sources of hematopoietic stem cells include umbilical cord blood, bone marrow, peripheral blood and embryos.

Stenosis - A narrowing, as in aortic stenosis (narrowing of the aortic valve in the heart), pulmonary stenosis (narrowing of the pulmonary valve in the heart), pyloric stenosis (narrowing of the outlet of the stomach), spinal stenosis (narrowing of the vertebral canal, often with impingement upon the spinal cord).From the Greek "stenos" meaning narrow.

stereocilia - Greek stereos = solid, and cilium = eyelash, hence non-motile microvilli.

Stereotactic Biopsy - Stereotactic biopsy is a precise method of sampling a small region of brain tissue using image-guidance and minimally invasive techniques. Through only a skin puncture and tiny bony opening, an instrument is accurately passed into a brain lesion in order to determine its nature. This approach is often used to diagnose brain tumors or other disorders. CT or MRI guidance is used.

sternebra - Greek sternon = chest or breast, and -bra = from vertebra, hence the segments of the sternum that fuse in later life.

Sterno- - (G. sternon, the chest). Pertaining to muscles attached to the sternum.

sternum - Greek sternon = chest or breast; adjective, sternal.

Steroid - Any hormone affecting the development and growth of sex organs. Testosterone and estrogen are steroids. Synthetic steroids are useful cancer treatments, but they might have undesirable side-effects. They are also characterized by a backbone of four linked carbon rings. Examples of steroids include cholesterol and certain hormones, including testosterone and estrogen.

stoma - Greek = a mouth.

stomach - Greek stomachos = gullet or oesophagus, later applied to the wider part of the digestive tract just below the diaphragm; adjective - gastric.

strabismus - Greek strabismos = squinting; hence, inability to focus both eyes on a given point.

stratum - Latin = a covering sheet, or layer.

stria - Latin = furrow, applied to a streak or stripe.

striatum - adjective, Latin striatus = furrowed; hence, corpus striatum, the caudate and lentiform nuclei connected by grey strands which traverse the internal capsule, giving the strands a striated appearance.

stroke volume (SV) - the volume of blood ejected by each ventricle during a single contraction.

stroma - Greek = bed or mattress, deep to the covers; hence, the supporting framework of an organ, as distinct from its special parenchyma.

Stromal Cells - Connective tissue cells of an organ found in the loose connective tissue. These are most often associated with the uterine mucosa and the ovary as well as the haematopoietic system and elsewhere.

Stylo- - (G. stylos, pillar or post). Pertaining to muscles attached to the styloid process of the temporal bone.

styloid - adjective, Greek stylos = an instrument for writing, and eidos = shape or form; hence a pen- or pencil-like structure.

Sub- - (L. sub, under). Denoting muscles that are beneath or inferior to a named structure, e.g., subclavius.

subclavian - Latin sub = under or below, and clavis = a key, hence under the clavicle.

Subcutis - Subcutis the deepest layer of skin and is also known as the subcutaneous layer.

subiculum - diminutive of Latin subix = a support.

sublimis - Latin = superficial.

substantia - Latin = a substance.

succus - Latin = juice (succus entericus, the secretion of the small intestine).

sudomotor - Latin sudor = sweat, and movere = to move, hence stimulating the sweat glands.

Sulcus - A groove or furrow, as one of the grooves on the surface of the cerebrum in mammals.

sulcus - Latin = a groove.

superciliary - adjective, Latin super = above, and cilia = eyelid; hence, pertaining to the eyebrow.

superficial - adjective, Latin super = above, and facies = surface; hence, nearer the surface.

Superior - (L. superus, above). Denoting a muscle located above another muscle in an inferior position or to another structure to which it is attached. Adjective, comparative of Latin superus = above.

supination - the act of turning the back of the hand to face posteriorly; verb - supinate.

Supinator - (L. supinare, to place on back). Denoting a muscle that, upon contraction, rotates the forearm and hand with the palm facing anteriorly when the hand and forearm are in the anatomical position.

supine - adjective, Latin supinus, recumbent on the back. Hence, also, the position of the hand with the dorsum facing posteriorly.

supra - Latin prefix = superior to.

Supra- - (L. supra, above). Prefix to note the position of a muscle above a named structure, e.g., supracostalis.

suprarenal - Latin supra = above, over, superior to, and ren = the kidney.

sural - adjective, Latin sura = the calf.

Suralis - (L. sura, calf of the leg). Relating to the calf.

Surgicel - Hemostatic agent.

sustentaculum - Latin = a support, which sustains; sustentaculum tali - the ledge on the calcaneus supporting part of the talus.

suture - Latin sutura = a seam; the fibrous joints between cranial bones.

sympathetic - Greek syn = with, and pathos = feeling; hence, the peripheral part of the autonomic nervous system which arises in the thoracolumbar region of the spinal cord and communicates with other nerves.

sympathetic nervous system - involved in the stimulation of activities that prepare the body for action, such as increasing the heart rate.

symphysis - Greek syn = with, and physis = growth; hence a joint where union between the bones is by fibrocartilage - used for median joints. (Symphysis of the mandible is exceptional, the 2 halves fusing before the age of 2).

synapse - Greek syn = with, and aptein = to join; hence, the zone through which an impulse passes from one neuron to another.

synapse (synaptic cleft) - a gap that separates the neuron from a muscle cell or another neuron.

synchondrosis - Greek syn = with, and chondros = cartilage; hence, the union of 2 bones by cartilage.

syncytium - Greek syn = with, and kytos = cell, hence a multinucleate mass of protoplasm, formed by the merging of cells.

syndesmosis - Greek syn = with, and desmos = a band; hence, the union of 2 bones by fibrous tissue.

syndrome - Greek syn = with, and dromos = running; hence, a group of signs and symptoms which is characteristic of a certain pathology.

synergist - Greek syn = with, and ergon = work; hence a muscle which cooperates with others in producing a given movement.

synovia - Greek syn = with, and ovum = egg; hence the fluid in freely movable joints resembling egg-white; adjective, synovial.

synovial - adjective, Greek syn = with, and ovum = egg; hence pertaining to the fluid in freely movable joints resembling egg-white.

systemic circulation - oxygenated blood travels from the left side of the heart to the various areas of the body. Gas, nutrient, and waste exchange occurs across the capillary walls into the surrounding cells. The deoxygenated blood returns to the right side of the heart.

systole - a contraction event of either the atria or ventricles.

systole - Greek = contraction; hence the contraction of cardiac muscle.