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Echography - Echography (ultrasound, ultrasonography or sonography) is a diagnostic test using high frequency sound waves that is utilized by many medical specialities.

Ectoderm - Greek ektos = outside, and derm = skin, hence, the outermost germ layer of the embryo.

Ectopic - Greek ek = out, and topos = place, hence out of place.

Edge - border or margin of a surface.

Effector - corrects conditions according to the evaluation of the integrator.

Efferent - adjective, Latin ex = out, and ferens = carrying, hence, conducting from.

Ejaculatory - Latin ex = out, and jacere = to throw, hence throwing out.

Elbow - the junction between arm and forearm.

Electrolyte - A substance that, when dissolved in a suitable solvent or when fused, becomes an ionic conductor.

Electron Transfer Proteins - involved in transferring electrons from one molecule to another during chemical reactions.

Electrons - the negative charge of an atom outside the nucleus.

Elements - make up matter and possess unique physical and chemical properties.

Elevate - Latin elevatus = raised up, hence, to raise up, and elevation = a raised part.

Emboli - Material, usually blood clot but may be fat, bone fragment, nitrogen bubble or bullet, that travels through the circulation, eventually obstructing blood flow through a smaller calibre vessel (for example stroke, pulmonary embolism, central retinal artery occlusion).

Emboliformis - adjective, Greek embolus = wedge or blocking matter.

Embryo - Greek en = within, and bryein = to swell or grow, hence the early stage of intrauterine development.
Eminence - Latin eminens = projecting, hence, a projection (usually smooth).

Emissary - adjective, Latin e = out, and emissum = sent out; emissary vein, one connecting intra- with extra-cranial venous channels.

Encephalon - Greek en = within, and kephalos = head, hence, the brain.

- Greek endo = within, and kardia = heart, hence, the endothelial lining of the chambers of the heart.

- Greek endo = within, and kranion = skull, hence, the outer endostial layer of the dura mater.

Endocrine - Greek endo = within, and krinein = to separate, hence, the organs that ductlessly secrete their products into the bloodstream.

Endocrine - A system in the body in which substances (hormones) are made and released (secreted) in the body. If the endocrine system is affected by certain drugs then there can be changes in hormones which can affect growth or sexual development and functions.

Endocrine glands - secrete hormones directly into the bloodstream.

Endocrine system - produces hormones that are instrumental in maintaining homeostasis and regulating reproduction and development.

Endocytosis - Incorporation of substances into a cell by phagocytosis or pinocytosis.

Endoderm - Greek endo = within, and derm = skin, hence, the germ layer of the embryo that gives rise to epithelium of the gastrointestinal and respiratory tracts.

Endolymph - Greek endo = within, and Latin lympha = clear water, hence the fluid within the membranous labyrinth of the internal ear.

Endometrium - Greek endo = within, and metra = uterus, hence the mucosal lining of the uterine cavity.
Endoplasmic reticulum (er) - stacks of flattened sacs involved in the production of various materials. A system of interconnected vesicular and lamellar cytoplasmic membranes that functions especially in the transport of materials within the cell and that is studded with ribosomes in some places.

Endoscopic biopsy - Endoscopic biopsy is done through an endoscope (a fiber optic cable for viewing inside the body) which is inserted into the body along with sampling instruments. The endoscope allows the physician to visualize the abnormality and guide the sampling.

Endothelial - Pertaining to or made up of endothelium.

Endothelium - An epithelium of mesodermal origin composed of a single layer of thin flattened cells that lines internal body cavities. Greek endo = within, and thele = the nipple; the squamous epithelium lining the heart and blood vessels.

Enzyme - A protein that speeds up chemical reactions in the body. (CNet) Any of a group of chemical substances which are produced by living cells and which cause particular chemical reactions to happen while not being changed themselves. E.g., an enzyme in the saliva of the mouth starts the process of breaking down the food.

Enzymes - proteins that are specific for particular reactions.

Eosinophilia - Elevated eosinophil count in the circulating blood. Commonly associated with chronic parasite infections.

Ependyma - Greek = an upper garment. It may refer to a vest or singlet, i.e. an under-garment, hence, the lining membrane of the ventricles of the brain and central canal of the spinal cord.

Epi - (G. epi, upon). Denoting a muscle attached to another structure, e.g., dorsoepitrochlearis muscle.

Epicanthus - Greek epi = upon, and kanthos = corner, hence, the fold of skin over the inner angle of the upper eyelid, a normal characteristic in certain races, and a congenital anomaly in others.

Epicardium - Greek epi = upon, and kardia = heart, hence, the visceral layer of serous pericardium which covers the heart.

Epicondyle - Greek epi = upon, and kondylos = knuckle, hence a prominence on a condyle of the humerus or femur.

Epicranial - adjective, Greek epi = upon, and kranion = skull, hence, the epicranial aponeurosis (galea) connecting frontalis to occipitalis muscles.

Epidermis - Greek epi = upon, and derm = skin, hence, the most external layer of the skin.

Epididymis - Greek epi = upon, and didymos = testis, hence, the organ perched posterosuperior to the testis.

Epidural - adjective, Greek epi = upon, Latin dura = tough, hence, external to dura mater.

Epigastrium - Greek epi = upon, and gaster = belly, hence, the upper median zone of the abdomen.

Epiglottis - Greek epi = upon, and glottis = larynx, hence the uppermost part of the larynx.

Epimysium - Greek epi = upon, and mys = muscle, hence the connective tissue surrounding an entire muscle.

Epiphysis - Greek epi = upon, and physis = growth, hence, the end of a long bone beyond the cartilaginous growth disc, adjective - epiphysial.

Epiploic - adjective, Greek epiploon = a net, which the greater omentum resembles with fat entangled in it.

Epistropheus - (G. epistropheus, the pivot). Muscles relating to the second cervical vertebra.

Epithalamus - contains the pineal gland.

Epithelial membrane - a combination of epithelial and connective tissues working together to perform a specific function

Epithelial tissue - acts as a covering and lining on the outside surfaces of the body and lines the internal organs or secretes hormones or other products.

Epithelium - Greek epi = upon, and thele = the nipple; the cell layer lining the internal and external surfaces of the body. The covering of internal and external surfaces of the body, including the lining of vessels and other small cavities.
Epitrochlearis - (L. epi, upon + trochlearis, block or pulley). Pertaining to muscles associated with the humeral epichondyle.

Erector - Latin erectus = straight or upright.

Erigentes - plural, Latin erigere = to erect.

Erythrocyte - Red blood cell.

Erythropoietin - A glycoprotein hormone produced primarily by cells of the peritubular capillary endothelium of the kidney that is responsible for the regulation of red blood cell production.

Estrogen - Any of various natural steroids (as estradiol) that are formed from androgen precursors, that are secreted chiefly by the ovaries, placenta, adipose tissue, and testes, and that stimulate the development of female secondary sex characteristics and promote the growth and maintenance of the female reproductive system.

Ethmoid - adjective, Greek ethmos = sieve, and eidos = shape or form, hence, like a sieve; an unpaired skull bone.

Eversion - Latin e = out, and versum = turned, hence turned outwards.

Excisional biopsy - Also known as a surgical or open biopsy, the purpose of an excisonal biopsy is to attempt to remove the entire mass or a large portion of the mass. The tissue that is removed is then sent to the pathologist for diagnosis.

Exocrine glands - secrete their substances into tubes, or ducts, which carry the secretions to the epithelial surface. Examples include sweat, saliva, milk, and stomach acid.

Exocytosis - The release of cellular substances (as secretory products) contained in cell vesicles by fusion of the vesicular membrane with the plasma membrane and subsequent release of the contents to the exterior of the cell.

Exophthalmos - Greek exo = out, and ophthalmos = eye, hence, prominent eyeball.

Exophthalmus - An abnormal protrusion of the eyeball(s).

Extend - Latin extendo = extend or stretch out, hence, extension = extended or straightened; the position opposite to the flexed or bent.

Extensor - (L. ex-tendre, to stretch out). A muscle that , upon contraction, tends to straighten a limb. The antagonist of a flexor muscle.

External - adjective, Latin externus = outward, hence, further from the inside.
Extraperitoneal - adjective, Latin extra = outside, Greek peri = around and teinein = stretched, hence outside the serous membrane stretched around the inside of the abdominal wall and around the viscera.

Extrapyramidal - Latin extra = outside, and pyramidal (q.v.), hence descending nerve tracts that do not traverse the pyramids of the medulla.

Extrinsic - Latin extrinsecus = from without, hence (usually) a muscle (usually) originating outside the part on which it acts.